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Splitting processes with loops that can be executed in parallel can help to improve the overall system efficiency. In the GSA accelerator system, many processes have been created to simplify the Master process code as illustrated in Figure 2(3). A garbage process reads useless data from the systolic array. A switch process, configured by the Master, carries results either to the server software process or to the Master when needed for the next computation. A cache system reads the alignment structure coming from the Server, stores sequences which need to be sent again, and does the sequence serialization. This splitting mechanism provides an efficient electronic system, minimizing process idle periods and generating simple code which is better suited for scheduler capabilities.

A modern platinum RTD (PRTD) can be used for absolute temperature measurement of the reference cold junction. It offers the good performance across the wide temperature range with a small form factor, low power consumption, and very reasonable cost.

Figure 4 is a simplified schematic showing a precision data acquisition system (DAS) that uses the evaluation (EV) kit for the MAX11200 24-bit delta-sigma ADC and allows thermocouple temperature measurements. Here, R1 – PT1000 (PTS 1206, 1000Ω) is used for absolute temperature measurement of the cold junction. This solution allows the cold junction temperature to be measured with ±0.30°C accuracy, or better. [3]

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Figure 4. Simplified thermocouple DAS.

As shown in Figure 4, the MAX11200’s GPIO is set to control the precision multiplexor, the MAX4782, which selects either the thermocouple or the PRTD R1 – PT1000. This approach allows dynamic thermocouple or PRTD measurements using a single ADC. The design improves the system precision and reduces the requirements for calibration.

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Nonlinearity errors

Thermocouples are voltage-generating devices. But output voltages as a function of temperature from the most common thermocouples [2, 4] are highly nonlinear.

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Figure 4 and Figure 5 demonstrate that without proper compensation, nonlinear errors for the popular industrial type-K thermocouples could exceed tens of °C.

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